Effects of sucrose reduction on the structural characteristics of sponge cake

Rosane Souza Cavalcante, Claudio Ernani Mendes da Silva


The consumption of reduced-calorie cakes has been increasing, however this has presented challenges to be overcome concerning the formation of their structure when the sucrose is substituted by alternative sweeteners, gums or thickening agents. The present study evaluated the internal characteristics of cakes with a reduction in sucrose, and the effects of its substitution on starch gelatinisation. Starting with a pre-established formulation, the sucrose was gradually substituted by a 1.0% mixture of sucralose in a 1.5% xanthan gum solution. In the substituted cake mix, the apparent viscosity and its thermal properties were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Specific volume (SV) and cell count (CC) were evaluated in the cakes. As the sucrose content decreased (52.17 to 10.00%), the specific volume (1.94 to 0.7 mL/g), cell count (36.2 to 4.0 cell/cm²) and the apparent viscosity of the batter (337.56 to 631.40 cP) were also reduced. The results showed that substituting the sucrose contributed greatly to the formation of defects in the cake structure (holes). From the data obtained, and thermograms of standard cake batters and those with a reduction in sucrose, it can be concluded that sucralose reduced the temperature of starch gelatinisation, speeding the process and causing compaction of the cake structure during baking, favouring the formation of bubbles throughout the batter.


Low calorie; Sucralose; Xanthan gum

Texto completo:



AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CEREAL CHEMISTS INTERNATIONAL. Approved Methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists. 10. ed. Method 10-10.03. St Paul-Minessota, AACC International, 2000.

BAEVA, M. R.; PANCHEV, I. N.; TERZIEVA, V. V. Comparative study of texture of normal and energy reduced sponge cakes. Narhung, v. 44, n. 4, p. 242-246, 2000.

CARRILLO, E. et al. How personality traits and intrinsic personal characteristics influence the consumer’s choice of reduced-calorie food. Food Research International, v. 49, n 2, p. 792-797, 2012.

EDWARDS, W. P. Sugar-free confectionery. In: EDWARDS, W. P. The Science of Sugar Confectionery. UK: The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2000. cap. 13, p. 131-143.

EMBUSCADO, M. E. Polyols. In: SPILLANE, W. J. Optimising sweet taste in foods. USA: CRC Press, 2006. cap. 8, p. 153-174.

FARZI, M.; SAFFARI, M. M.; EMAM-DJOMEH, Z. Effects of sugar, starch and HPMC concentrations on textural properties of reduced-sugar sponge cakes. J Food Sci Technol, v. 52, n. 1, p. 444-450, 2015.

FRYE, A. M; SETSER, C. S. Optimising texture of reduced calorie sponge cakes. Cereal Chemistry, v. 69, n. 3, p. 338-343, 1991.

HICSASMAZ, Z. et al. Effect of polydextrose-substitution on the cell structure of the high-ratio cake system. Lebensm.-Wiss. U.-Technol., v. 36, n. 4, p. 441-450, 2003.

HOSENEY, R. C. Cereal Science and Technology. 2. ed. Minessota: American Association of Cereal Chemistry Inc., 1994. 201 p.

HUSSEIN, E. A.; EL-BELTAGY, A. E.; GAAFAR, A. M. Production and Quality Evaluation of Low Calorie Cake. American Journal of Food Technology, v. 6, n. 9, p. 827-834, 2011.

JOHANSEN, S. B.; NAESA, T.; HERSLETH M. Motivation for choice and healthiness perception of calorie-reduced dairy products. A cross-cultural study. Appetite, v. 56, n. 1, p. 15-24, 2011.

KAMEL, B. S.; RASPER, V. F. Effects of emulsifiers, sorbitol, polydextrose, and crystalline cellulose on the texture of reduced calorie cakes. Journal of Texture Studies, v. 19, n. 3, p. 307-320, 1988.

KIM, C. S.; WALKER, C. E. Interactions between starches, sugars and emulsifiers in high-ratio cake model systems. Cereal Chemistry, v. 69, n. 2, p. 206-212, 1992.

KIM, S. S.; SETSER, C. S. Wheat starch gelatinization in the presence of polydextrose or hydrolyzed barley b-glucan. Cereal Chemistry, v. 69, n. 4, p. 447-451, 1992.

KOCER, D. et al. Bubble and pore formation of the high-ratio cake formulation with polydextrose as a sugar- and fat-replacer. J Food Eng,, v. 78, n. 3, p. 953-964, 2007.

KULP K.; LORENZ K.; STONE, M. Functionality of carbohydrate ingredients in bakery products. Food Technology, v. 45, n. 3, p. 136-142, 1991.

MANISHA, G.; SOWMYA, C.; INDRANI, D. Studies on interaction between stevioside, liquid sorbitol, hydrocolloids and emulsifiers for replacement of sugar in cakes. Food Hydrocolloids, v. 29, n. 2, p. 363-373, 2012.

MARTÍNEZ-CERVERA, S. et al. Effect of using erythritol as a sucrose replacer in making Spanish muffins incorporating xanthan gum. Food Bioprocess Technol, v. 5, n. 8, p. 3203–3216, 2012.

MARTÍNEZ-CERVERA, S.; SALVADOR , A.; SÁNZ, T. Comparison of different polyols as total sucrose replacers in muffins Thermal, rheological, texture and acceptability properties. Food Hydrocolloids, v. 35, n. 1, p. 1-8, 2014.

NGO, W. H.; TARANTO, M. V. Effect of sucrose level on the rheological properties of cake batters. Cereal Foods World, v. 31, n. 1, p. 317-322, 1986.

PAREYT, B. et al. The role of sugar and fat in sugar-snap cookies: Structural and textural properties. Journal of Food Engineering, v. 90, n. 3, p. 400-408, 2009.

PATERAS, I. M.; HOWELLS, K. F.; ROSENTHAL, A. J. Hot stage microscopy of cake batter bubbles during simulated baking: sucrose replacement by polydextrose. J Food Sci., v. 59, n.1, p. 168-178, 1994.

PATON, D.; LAROCQUE, G. M.; HOLME, J. Development of cake structure: influence of ingredients on the measurement of cohesive force during baking. Cereal Chemistry, v. 58, n. 6, p. 527-529, 1981.

PREICHARDT, L. D. et al. The role of xanthan gum in the quality of gluten free cakes: improved bakery products for coeliac patients. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, v. 46, n. 12, p. 2591-2597, 2011.

RONDA, F. et al. Effects of polyols and nondigestible oligosaccharides on the quality of sugar-free sponge cakes. Food Chemistry, v. 90, n. 4, p. 549–555, 2005.

RONDA, F. et al. Rheological study of layer cake batters made with soybean protein isolate and different starch sources. Journal of Food Engineering, v. 102, n. 3, p. 272-277, 2011.

SCHIRMER, M. et al. Physicochemical interactions of polydextrose for sucrose replacement in pound cake. Food Research International, v. 48, n. 1, p. 291-298, 2012.

SHUKLA, T. P. Problems in fat-free and sugarless baking. Cereal Foods World, v. 40, n. 1, p. 159-160, 1995.

SPIES R. D.; HOSENEY R. C. Effect of sugars on starch gelatinization. Cereal Chemistry, v. 59, n. 2, p. 128-131, 1982.

STATSOFT. Computer program manual. Tulsa: Statsoft, 2010.

TUBARI, E. et al. Dielectric and thermal properties of rice cake formulations containing different gums types. International Journal of Food Properties, v. 13, n. 6, p. 1199-1206, 2010.

TUBARI, E.; SUMNU G.; SAHIN, S. Rheological properties and quality of rice cakes formulated with different gums and an emulsifier blend. Food Hydrocolloids, v. 22, n. 2, p. 305-312, 2008.

WETZEL C. R.; WEESE J. O.; BELL L. N. Sensory evaluation of no-sugar added cakes containing encapsulated aspartame. Food Res Int, v. 30, n. 6, p. 395-399, 1997.

WILDERJANS, E. et al. The role of gluten in a pound cake system: A model approach based on gluten-starch blends. Food Chemistry, v. 110, n. 4, p. 909-915, 2008.

Revista Ciência Agronômica ISSN 1806-6690 (online) 0045-6888 (impresso), Site: www.ccarevista.ufc.br, e-mail: ccarev@ufc.br - Fone: (85) 3366.9702 - Expediente: 2ª a 6ª feira - de 7 às 17h.