Vegetal burgers of cashew fiber and cowpea: formulation, characterization and stability during frozen storage

Janice Ribeiro Lima, Deborah dos Santos Garruti, Terezinha Feitosa Machado, Ídila Maria da Silva Araújo


This work aimed to obtain a vegetable burger from the cashew juice production residue (fiber) and cowpea that are two abundant materials in Northeast Brazil. Fiber was washed and pressed in an expeller for five times. Cowpea was soaked in water and, after skin removal, ground to obtain a paste. Hamburgers were made by mixing the cashew fiber, the cowpea paste, and the ingredients used in traditional burger recipes, then shaped and frozen. Four sensory tests were performed to define: (1) the need of cooking the cowpea paste with the other ingredients; (2) the fiber/paste proportion; (3) ingredients to enhance the sensory characteristics; (4) burger acceptance. The resultant formulation had 29.3% of cashew fiber, 29.3% of cowpea paste, 25.1% of tomato, 6.8% of onion, 5.3% of sweet pepper, 1.3% of garlic, 0.1% of black pepper, 0.2% of dehydrated parsley, 1.2% of salt and 1.4% of corn oil. The sensory acceptance was 7.8 in a 9-point hedonic scale. Proximate composition was 71.08% moisture, 2.07% ashes, 4.86% proteins, 1.19% lipids and 20.79% total carbohydrates. Stability was evaluated during frozen storage (-18 ºC) for 180 days. In this period, acidity increased and pH and ascorbic acid decreased. As to color, a* and b* values increased, indicating that the burgers became more orange/brown. The burger was considered microbiologically safe and shelf-stable for at least 6 months.


Anacardium occidentale L.; Vigna unguiculata L.; By-products; Shelf life

Texto completo:



ABREU, F. P. et al. Cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) extract from by-product of juice processing: a focus on carotenoids. Food Chemistry, v. 138, n. 1, p. 25-31, 2013.

ADEGUNWA, M. O. et al. Processing effects on chemical, functional and pasting properties of cowpea flour from different varieties. Nigerian Food Journal, v. 30, n. 1, p. 67-73, 2012.

ASSOCIATION OF OFFICIAL ANALYTICAL CHEMISTS. Official methods of analysis of the Association of Analytical Chemists. 16th ed. Gaithersburg, M.D., 1997.

AVANZA, M. et al. Nutritional and anti-nutritional components of four cowpea varieties under thermal treatments: principal component analysis. LWT - Food Science and Technology, v. 51, n. 1, p.148-157, 2013.

BRASIL. Ministério da Saúde. Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. Resolução RDC nº 360, de 23 de dezembro de 2003. Aprova regulamento técnico sobre rotulagem nutricional de alimentos embalados. Diário Oficial da União, Poder Executivo, Brasília, 26 de dezembro de 2003.

CARVALHO, A. F. U. et al. Nutritional ranking of 30 Brazilian genotypes of cowpeas including determination of antioxidant capacity and vitamins. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, v. 26, n. 1/2, p. 81-88, 2012.

CORREIA, J. A. C. et al. Alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment of cashew apple bagasse for ethanol production: study of parameters. Bioresource Technology, v. 139, n. 1, p. 249-256, 2013.

DAMASCENO, L. R. et al. Non-enzymatic browning in clarified cashew apple juice during thermal treatment: kinetics and process control. Food Chemistry, v. 106, n. 1, p. 172-179, 2008.

DANTAS FILHO, L. A. et al. Inclusão de polpa de caju desidratada na alimentação de ovinos: desempenho, digestibilidade e balanço de nitrogênio. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, v. 36, n. 1, p. 147-154, 2007.

DOWNES, F. P.; ITO, H. Compendium of methods for the microbiological examination of food. 4. ed. Washington: American Public Health Association, 2001.

GIAMI, S. Y. Compositional and nutritional properties of selected newly developed lines of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp). Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, v. 18, n. 5, p. 665-673, 2005.

KUILA, A. et al. Process optimization for aqueous extraction of reducing sugar from cashew apple bagasse: a potential, low cost substrate. LWT - Food Science and Technology, v. 44, n. 1, p. 62-66, 2011.

LIMA, F. C. S. et al. Chemical composition of the cashew apple bagasse and potential use for ethanol production. Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science, v. 2, n. 4, p. 519-523, 2012.

LIMA, J. R. Caracterização físico-química e sensorial de hambúrguer vegetal elaborado a base de caju. Ciência e Agrotecnologia, v. 32, n. 1, p. 191-195, 2008.

LIMA, W. A. et al. Caracterização e armazenamento de farinhas obtidas a partir do resíduo de caju. Revista Geintec, v. 3, n. 4, p. 109-120, 2013.

MATIAS, M. F. O. et al. Use of fibres obtained from cashew (Anacardium ocidentale, L) and guava (Psidium guaiava) fruits for enrichment of food products. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, v. 48, p. 143-150, 2005. Número especial.

MAZZEO, T. et al. Impact of the industrial freezing process on selected vegetables. Part II: Colour and bioactive compounds. Food Research International, v. 75, p. 89-97, 2015.

MEILGAARD, M.; CIVILLE, G. V.; CARR, B. T. Sensory evaluation techniques. 3. ed. New York, USA: CRC Press, 1999. 390 p.

NEWELL, G. J.; MACFARLANE, J. D. Expanded tables for multiple comparison procedures in the analysis of ranked data. Journal of Food Science, v. 52, n. 6, p. 1721-1725, 1987.

PACIULLI, M. et al. Impact of the industrial freezing process on selected vegetables. Part I: Structure, texture and antioxidant capacity. Food Research International, v. 74, p. 329-337, 2015.

PHILLIPS, K. M. et al. Stability of vitamin C in fruit and vegetable homogenates stored at different temperatures. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, v. 45, p. 147-162, 2016.

PINHO, L. X. et al. Desidratação e aproveitamento de resíduo de pedúnculo de caju como adição de fibra na elaboração de hambúrguer. Alimentos e Nutrição, v. 22, n. 4, p. 571-576, 2011a.

PINHO, L. X. et al. The use of cashew apple residue as source of fiber in low fat hamburgers. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, v. 31, n. 4, p. 941-945, 2011b.

RAMOS, L. S. N. et al. Polpa de caju em rações para frangos na fase final: desempenho e características e carcaça. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, v. 35, n. 3, p. 804-810, 2006.

ROCHA, M. V. P. et al. Evaluation of dilute acid pretreatment on cashew apple bagasse for ethanol and xylitol production. Chemical Engineering Journal, v. 243, n. 1, p. 234-243, 2014.

SHAHIDI, F.; AMBIGAIPALAN, P. Phenolics and polyphenolics in foods, beverages and spices: antioxidant activity and health effects: a review. Journal of Functional Foods, v. 18, p. 820-897, 2015.

STATISTICAL ANALISYS SYSTEM. Statistical analysis system user’s guide. Version 9.2. Cary, N.C.: SAS Institute, 2009.

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. National nutrient database for standard reference. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 16 jan. 2015.

VASCONCELOS, I. M. et al. Protein fractions, amino acid composition and antinutritional constituents of high-yielding cowpea cultivars. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, v. 23, n. 1, p. 54-60, 2010.

Revista Ciência Agronômica ISSN 1806-6690 (online) 0045-6888 (impresso), Site:, e-mail: - Fone: (85) 3366.9702 - Expediente: 2ª a 6ª feira - de 7 às 17h.