Water footprint of banana in the Brazilian semi-arid region

Vandemberk Rocha de Oliveira, Raimundo Nonato Távora Costa, Kenya Gonçalves Nunes, Viviane da Silva Barros


Due to water scarcity in semi-arid regions, water resources management strategies are indispensable for agricultural production, in order to guarantee food security for the population. Banana is of great importance in Brazilian agribusiness, with the Northeast region contributing the largest production, approximately 32% of national production. The objective of this study was to determine and evaluate the total water footprint of banana crop, considering the blue, green and gray water footprints, with a view to guiding water management in banana producing regions of the Brazilian semiarid region, in the State of Ceará, Brazil; in the Jaguaribe-Apodi and Tabuleiros de Russas Irrigation Projects, as well as a producing area in the municipality of Missão Velha. The average agricultural water footprint for Jaguaribe-Apodi, Tabuleiros de Russas and Missão Velha were 998.3; 1048 and 1107 m³ t-1, respectively. For Missão Velha, the blue water footprint was 780.9 m³ t-1 and for Jaguaribe-Apodi and Russas they were 830.6 and 862.7 m³ t-1, respectively. The regions studied showed similar blue water footprint, which demonstrates the need for water input from the crop and the dependence on surface and/or underground water sources. Water footprint assessment contributes to the decision-making of governments and producers regarding the real value of raw water, raising discussions related to raw water collection in the agricultural sector as well as the implantation and management of crops in the different hydrographic basins.


Irrigation management. Efficient use of water. Water scarcity.

Texto completo:

PDF (English)


CAZCARRO, I. et al. How sustainable is the increase in the water footprint of the Spanish Agricultural Sector? A Provincial Analysis between 1955 and 2005–2010. Sustainability, v. 7, p. 5094-5119,2015.

CHOUCHANE, H. et al. The water footprint of Tunisia from an economic perspective. Ecological Indicators, v. 52, p. 311-319, 2015.

CLERCX, L.; TORRES, E. Z.; KUIPER, J. D. Water footprint assessment of bananas produced by small banana farmers in Peru and Ecuador. Acta Horticulturae, v. 1112, p. 21-28, 2016.

COLTRO, L.; KARASKI, T. U. Indicadores ambientais da produção de banana no Brasil: variedades Cavendish e Prata. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 207, p. 363-378, 2019.

FAO. Banana: statistical compendium 2015-16. FAO, 2017. Disponível em: http://www.fao.org/3/a-i7409e.pdf

FAO. Crop Water Information for Banana. 2015a. http://www.fao.org/nr/water/cropinfo_banana.html

FAO. World water council towards a water and food secure future: critical perspectives for policy-makers Marseille, 2015. 2015b.

GIACOMIN, G. S.; OHNUMA JÚNIOR, A. A. Análise de resultados de pegada hídrica por países e produtos específicos. Revista Eletrônica em Gestão, Educação e Tecnologia Ambiental, v. 8, p. 1562-1572, 2012.

HOEKSTRA, A. Y. Virtual water trade: proceedings of the international expert meeting on virtual water trade. Delft, The Netherlands: IHE Institute for Water Education, 2003. 248p.

HOEKSTRA, A. Y. et al. The water footprint assessment manual. 1. ed. London: Water Footprint Network, 2011. 224p.

HUANG, J. et al. Reducing agricultural water footprints at the farm scale: a case study in the Beijing Region. Water, v. 7, n. 12, p. 7066-7077, 2015.

INMET, Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia. BDMEP: Banco de dados meteorológicos para ensino e pesquisa. Disponível em: http://www.inmet.gov.br/portal/index.php?r=bdmep/bdmep. Acesso em: 25 ago. 2019.

MEDEIROS, R. M. et al. Balanço hídrico climatológico e classificação climática para a área produtora da banana do município de Barbalha, CE. Revista Brasileira de Agricultura Irrigada, v. 7, n. 4, p. 258-268, 2013.

MEKONNEN, M. M.; HOEKSTRA, A. Y. A global and high-resolution assessment of the green, blue and grey water footprint of wheat. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, v. 15, p. 1577-1600, 2011.

MEKONNEN, M. M.; HOEKSTRA, A. Y. Four billion people facing severe water scarcity.

Science Advances, v. 2, n. 2, e1500323, 2016.

NOURI, H. et al. Water scarcity alleviation through water footprint reduction in agriculture: the effect of soil mulching and drip irrigation. Science of the Total Environment, v. 653, p. 241-252, 2019.

NOVOA, V. et al. Understanding agricultural water footprint variability to improve water management in Chile. Science of the Total Environment, v. 670, p. 188-19920, 2019.

PAHLOW, M; SNOWBALL, J; FRASER, G. Water footprint assessment to inform water management and policy making in South Africa. Water SA, v. 41, n. 3, p. 300-313, 2015.

ROIBÁS, L.; ELBEHRI, A.; HOSPIDO, A. Evaluating the sustainability of Ecuadorian bananas: Carbon footprint, water usage and wealth distribution along the supply chain. Sustainable Production and Consumption, v. 2, p. 3-16, 2015.

SEAGRI. O agronegócio da agricultura irrigada no Ceará (1999–2003). Fortaleza: SIGA/SEAGRI, 2003. 14p.

Revista Ciência Agronômica ISSN 1806-6690 (online) 0045-6888 (impresso), Site: www.ccarevista.ufc.br, e-mail: ccarev@ufc.br - Fone: (85) 3366.9702 - Expediente: 2ª a 6ª feira - de 7 às 17h.